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Ramirez, P., 'The globalisation of research amongst leading European and US Pharmaceutical multinationals: The shift of European investment to the USA', CISC Working Paper No. 9.

The paper examines evidence from three types of data to gauge the globalisation of research in the pharmaceutical industry. The results show a flow of European investment to the USA with no corresponding investment flow from the USA to Europe. Rather than globalisation the results show the increasing ´┐ŻAmericanisation´┐Ż of research in this industry. The data indicate that it is not only the leading-edge nature of science and technology that is pulling R&D towards the USA but also the size and dynamism of the US market and an institutional system which allows relatively easy access to academic research.

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